The cornerstone of our understandingThe cornerstone of our understanding of the Earth's electrical environment is an integration of measurements, theory, and modeling. The new instruments and tech-niques that have been developed in rcccnt years arc diverse, and various chapters in this volume contain details on techniques beyond those illustrated in this Overview.
Remote measurements of electric and magnetic fields can now be used to infer many properties of lightning and lightning currents. Abo. the amplitude and time character-istics of thunder and various radio-frcquency (rf) nobe emissions can be used to trace the geometrical deselopment of lightning channels within Juicy Couture Outlet Online clouds as a function of both space and time. There are now large networks of ground-based lightning detectors that
can discriminate between in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning and accurately de-termine the locations of ground-strike points. With such a detection capability, it should now be possible to determine whether and how the characteristics of individual cloud-to-ground discharges depend on their geographic location, the local terrain, and/or the meteorological structure of the storm.
The rf noise that is genrratcd by lightning in the hf and vhf bands appears in the Juicy Couture Sale form of discrete bursts, and within a burst there are hundreds to thousands of separate pulses. If the difference in the time of arrival of each pulse is carefully measured at widely separated stations, the location of the source of each pulse can be computed, and the geometrical development of the rf Juicy Couture Outlet bursts can be mapped as a function of time.